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A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence, Potential Risk Factors, and Symptom-specific Bother of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adult Chinese Women

European Urology, 1, 68, pages 97 - 112

Abstract

Background

Epidemiological studies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are few in China, and none has been conducted nationwide.

Objective

To estimate the prevalence and potential risk factors of LUTS and the bother they impose on adult women in China.

Design, setting, and participants

This is the second analysis of a population-based cross-sectional survey on urinary incontinence conducted between February and July 2006 in six regions of China. Cluster samples were randomly selected for interviews.

Interventions

No intervention was implemented.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

A modified Chinese Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire was administered. The participants were asked about the presence of individual LUTS and rated their symptom bother. Descriptive statistics, χ2 tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and multivariate logistic regressions were used for data analysis.

Results and limitations

A total of 18 992 respondents (94.96%) were included. The prevalence of any LUTS, storage symptoms, or voiding symptoms was 55.5%, 53.9%, and 12.9%, respectively, and increased with age. Nocturia was the most common symptom (23.4%), followed by urgency (23.3%) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI; 18.9%). Nocturia was most frequently rated as bothersome (93.0%) but was generally minor (80.5%). Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were most frequently reported as severe (11.5% and 10.8%) or moderate (18.5% and 16.8%) bothers. Any LUTS were more prevalent in urban women (57.1% vs 53.9%). Multiple factors increased the odds of bother and individual LUTS, and older age and coexisting pelvic organ prolapse were strong predictors (p < 0.05). This survey was conducted 8 yr ago and did not assess all LUTS.

Conclusions

Half of adult women suffered with LUTS; nocturia, urgency, and SUI were more prevalent. Urgency and UUI were most frequently reported as severe or moderate bothers. Multiple factors influenced bother and individual LUTS.

Patient summary

The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers and should be targeted for medical intervention.

Take Home Message

The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Nocturia, urgency, and stress urinary incontinence were more prevalent. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers. Multiple factors influenced LUTS.

Keywords: Bother, China, Epidemiology, Lower urinary tract symptoms, Prevalence, Potential risk factors.

Footnotes

a Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China

b Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China

c Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Shanxi Province, Shanxi, People's Republic of China

d Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

e Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child-care Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China

f Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Foshan, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Corresponding author. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 ShuaiFu Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Tel. +86 139 11714696; Fax: +86 10 69155016.