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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and nocturia in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

By S. Sutcliffe, R.L. Grubb III, E.A. Platz, L.R. Ragard, T.L. Riley, S.S. Kazin, R.B. Hayes, A.W. Hsing and G.L. Andriole

BJU International, Volume 110, Issue 7, October 2012, Pages 1050-1059

Study Type – Therapy (cohort)
Level of Evidence 4

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?
Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the development of BPH and LUTS. Therefore, it is plausible that anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin and other NSAIDs, may reduce the risk of BPH/LUTS, as was observed in a recent analysis of daily aspirin use and BPH/LUTS risk in the Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms and Health Status in Men.
The present study, conducted in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, found no association for recent aspirin or ibuprofen use with the risk of BPH/LUTS.

OBJECTIVE
To investigate the relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and the incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia, a lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) of BPH, in light of accumulating evidence suggesting a role for inflammation in BPH/LUTS development.

PATIENTS AND METHODS
At baseline, participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial completed questions on recent, regular aspirin and ibuprofen use, BPH surgery, diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH, and nocturia. Participants in the intervention arm also underwent a digital rectal examination (DRE), from which prostate dimensions were estimated, as well as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Only participants in the intervention arm without BPH/LUTS at baseline were included in the analysis (n= 4771).

During follow-up, participants underwent annual DREs and PSA tests, provided annual information on finasteride use, and completed a supplemental questionnaire in 2006–2008 that included additional questions on diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH and nocturia.

Information collected was used to investigate regular aspirin or ibuprofen use in relation to the incidence of six BPH/LUTS definitions: diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH, nocturia (waking two or more times per night to urinate), finasteride use, any self-reported BPH/LUTS, prostate enlargement (estimated prostate volume ≥30 mL on any follow-up DRE) and elevation in PSA level (>1.4 ng/mL on any follow-up PSA test).

RESULTS
Generally, null results were observed for any recent, regular aspirin or ibuprofen use (risk ratio = 0.92–1.21, P= 0.043–0.91) and frequency of use (risk ratios for one category increase in NSAID use = 0.98–1.11,P-trends = 0.10–0.99) with incident BPH/LUTS.

CONCLUSION
The findings obtained in the present study do not support a protective role for recent NSAID use in BPH/LUTS development.